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vinay g asked I want information on superconductivity, its discovery, its meaning and its application in today's IT world
And got the following answer:
Superconductivity is a phenomenon occurring in certain materials at extremely low temperatures (on the order of negative 200 degrees Celsius), characterized by exactly zero electrical resistance and the exclusion of the interior magnetic field (the Meissner effect). In 1986 the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, with critical temperatures in excess of 90 Kelvin, spurred renewed interest and research in superconductivity for several reasons. As a topic of pure research, these materials represented a new phenomenon not explained by the current theory. And, because the superconducting state persists up to more manageable temperatures, more commercial applications are feasible, especially if materials with even higher critical temperatures could be discovered. Elementary properties of superconductors Most of the physical properties of superconductors vary from material to material, such as the heat capacity and the critical temperature at which superconductivity is destroyed. On the other hand, there is a class of properties that are independent of the underlying material. For instance, all superconductors have exactly zero resistivity to low applied currents when there is no magnetic field present. The existence of these "universal" properties implies that superconductivity is a thermodynamic phase, and thus possess certain distinguishing properties which are largely independent of microscopic details. Superconductivity was discovered in 1911 by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, who was studying the resistivity of solid mercury at cryogenic temperatures using the recently-discovered liquid helium as a refrigerant. At the temperature of 4.2 K, he observed that the resistivity abruptly disappeared. For this discovery, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1913. Superconductors are used to make some of the most powerful electromagnets known to man, including those used in MRI machines and the beam-steering magnets used in particle accelerators. They can also be used for magnetic separation, where weakly magnetic particles are extracted from a background of less or non-magnetic particles, as in the pigment industries. Superconductors have also been used to make digital circuits (e.g. based on the Rapid Single Flux Quantum technology) and microwave filters for mobile phone base stations. Superconductors are used to build Josephson junctions which are the building blocks of SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices), the most sensitive magnetometers known. Series of Josephson devices are used to define the SI volt. Depending on the particular mode of operation, a Josephson junction can be used as photon detector or as mixer. The large resistance change at the transition from the normal- to the superconducting state is used to build thermometers in cryogenic micro-calorimeter photon detectors. Other early markets are arising where the relative efficiency, size and weight advantages of devices based on HTS outweigh the additional costs involved. Promising future applications include high-performance transformers, power storage devices, electric power transmission, electric motors (e.g. for vehicle propulsion, as in vactrains or maglev trains), magnetic levitation devices, and Fault Current Controllers. However superconductivity is sensitive to moving magnetic fields so applications that use alternating current (e.g. transformers) will be more difficult to develop than those that rely upon direct current. For more information please visit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superconductivity www.vectorsite.net/ttspcon.html hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/solids/scond.html www.ornl.gov/reports/m/ornlm3063r1/contents.html