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Rei asked Are there published steps for chemically creating rudimentary transistors?

Hello. I would like to connect a multimeter to the transistors as part of the experiment. I understand that many of you who are trained are using exotic and expensive processes. Is there not some crude process for depositing impurities onto intrinsic silicon and bonding electrodes somehow? I realize the answer is complex and spans volumes. Can you suggest a book with the desired vocational/technical focous? I will have access to a first year chemistry lab at a community college. I understand some chemicals will have to be obtained through proper channels. I believe I could get help obtaining these chemicals if I am prepared to create the semiconductor material. Thanks.

And got the following answer:

Bell Labs used to produce a kit where you could make your own PV cell at home, back in the mid 1960's. I've actually built a small FAB in my garage, some years ago. So you can actually make things on your own. Some things are easy to come by, like silicon wafers for example. Or at least, broken bits of them. The actual wafers aren't terribly expensive, so you might be able to beg a few off from some FAB, in fact. I got mine that way. Some things are hard to get ahold off... and dangerous besides. Phosphine (phosphane), silane, and arsine are common examples of such gases that are very useful, but also very very dangerous. In the US, you can still get them. Transportation across state boundaries is stupidly easier than transportation within states. (Used to be, anyway.) If you can get them, you need to be VERY CAREFUL. Frankly, I think you should avoid them like the plague (unless you are well trained in their storage and use.) Silane, for example, is hard to deal with. It "finds" microfractures in tubing and heats them up as it burns in air and widens them, resulting in an explosion. If it leaks directly from the canister -- big time explosion and the canister is literally fragmented into tiny bits tossed hundreds and often thousands of feet away (IBM did a nifty film on this.) Arsine is fantastically poisonous, plus pyrophoric. Phosphine is pyrophoric and poisonous. Find alternative liquids or very fine powders you can use that can replicate the dopants on the surfaces. Creating the temperatures, though, isn't too bad. You will need a nickel chamber (who can afford a gold plated one these days??) that will reflect most of the lamp heating you use. You will need to line the outside surface of that chamber with heat dissipating copper piping (not too expensive from a Home Depot, for example) and use a garden hose to supply the water coolant needed to keep the nickel cooler. Then get a bunch of 300W halogen lamps to place in the interior of your chamber (you will use lamp heating.) A dozen should be good, but the exact number will be something you will need to work out. Get a $150 PID loop based power controller that uses a thermocouple input (you will need a type R or S or B to get anywhere near 1500C, where oxide passivation is often done... but you will need other types to help ramp upwards, as well... unless you run that part of the cycle open loop.) You can get ceramic blocks to set things onto, as well. In a matter of a week or so, you can actually put together a really nice furnace capable of wafer temperatures exceeding 1500C and ramp rates of maybe 200C/second, more if you are crazy enough. I've said nothing about vacuum, yet, either. But anything that hot is a disaster with oxygen in there. You can test out the chamber first by backfilling with dry nitrogen (cheap and easy.) That will make it possible to at least make sure you have the basics working before you do something more dangerous. Cheaply made in a garage like the above, you don't get the kind of multi-zonal control over the wafer that FABs get with RTP furnaces and you don't get crafted processing times at known temps, either. Big wafers have terrible thermal edge effects that destroy them, poorly heated. So use very small wafers. Never anything bigger than an inch or two would be good. Optical temp measurement is "difficult" in a lamp heated environment, but if you can arrange structures so that there is a black body cavity underneath the wafer, you can set the emissivity to 1 and do reasonable measurements in the 870nm band for example. Regardless, dopant diffusion control is going to be a real pain. So design for that. Ask for some help regarding safer chemicals to use. I'm providing a photograph of the kit materials used back in the 1960's, as sold by Bell Labs for students: http://www.beatriceco.com/bti/porticus/bell/images/bellkits/se5.jpg EDIT: Sorry, I can't recommend a book. All the above comes from experience designing instrumentation for FABs and creating small test cases to validate them before use.

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