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Coal mining – particularly surface mining – requires large areas of land to be temporarily disturbed. This raises a number of environmental challenges, including soil erosion, dust, noise and water pollution, and impacts on local biodiversity. Steps are taken in modern mining operations to minimise these impacts. Good planning and environmental management minimises the impact of mining on the environment and helps to preserve biodiversity. Land Disturbance In best practice, studies of the immediate environment are carried out several years before a coal mine opens in order to define the existing conditions and to identify potential problems. The studies look at the impact of mining on: surface and ground water soils local land use native vegetation wildlife populations. Computer simulations can be undertaken to model impacts on the local environment. The findings are then reviewed as part of the process leading to the award of a mining permit by the relevant government authorities. Mine Subsidence Mine subsidence can be a problem with underground coal mining, whereby the ground level lowers as a result of coal having been mined beneath. A thorough understanding of subsistence patterns in a particular region allows the effects of underground mining on the surface to be quantified. This ensures the safe, maximum recovery of a coal resource, while providing protection to other land uses. Water Pollution Acid mine drainage (AMD) is metal-rich water formed from the chemical reaction between water and rocks containing sulphur-bearing minerals. The runoff formed is usually acidic and frequently comes from areas where ore- or coal mining activities have exposed rocks containing pyrite, a sulphur-bearing mineral. However, metal-rich drainage can also occur in mineralised areas that have not been mined. AMD is formed when the pyrite reacts with air and water to form sulphuric acid and dissolved iron. This acid run-off dissolves heavy metals such as copper, lead and mercury into ground and surface water. There are mine management methods that can minimise the problem of AMD, and effective mine design can keep water away from acidgenerating materials and help prevent AMD occurring. AMD can be treated actively or passively. Active treatment involves installing a water treatment plant, where the AMD is first dosed with lime to neutralise the acid and then passed through settling tanks to remove the sediment and particulate metals. Passive treatment aims to develop a self-operating system that can treat the effluent without constant human intervention. Dust & Noise Pollution Dust at mining operations can be caused by: trucks being driven on unsealed roads coal crushing operations drilling operations wind blowing over areas disturbed by mining. Dust levels can be controlled by spraying water on roads, stockpiles and conveyors. Other steps can also be taken, including fitting drills with dust collection systems and purchasing additional land surrounding the mine to act as a buffer zone. Trees planted in these buffer zones can also minimise the visual impact of mining operations on local communities. Noise can be controlled through the careful selection of equipment and insulation and sound enclosures around machinery. Rehabilitation Coal mining is only a temporary use of land, so it is vital that rehabilitation of land takes place once mining operations have stopped. In best practice a detailed rehabilitation or reclamation plan is designed and approved for each coal mine, covering the period from the start of operations until well after mining has finished. Mine reclamation activities are undertaken gradually – with the shaping and contouring of spoil piles, replacement of topsoil, seeding with grasses and planting of trees taking place on the mined-out areas. Care is taken to relocate streams, wildlife, and other valuable resources. Reclaimed land can have many uses, including agriculture, forestry, wildlife habitation and recreation. Using Methane from Coal Mines Methane (CH4) is a gas formed as part of the process of coal formation. It is released from the coal seam and the surrounding disturbed strata during mining operations. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas – it is estimated to account for 18% of the overall global warming effect arising from human activities (CO2 is estimated to contribute 50%). While coal is not the only source of methane emissions – agricultural activities are major emitters – methane from coal seams can be utilised rather than released to the atmosphere with a significant environmental benefit.